Understanding Electric Motors

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Before choosing an electric motor type for your industrial or domestic application, it is important to know what they are, how they work and any constraints that exist for the different different types of motor available.

Let's start with what it is. Put simply, it converts electric energy into mechanical energy. Generally speaking, in a standard set up and configuration, these motors will operate between winding currents and the magnetic field created to produce a force within the motor. This force is also generated through the input of a power source.

This type of motor can be powered by ether direct current (DC) or by current current (AC) .Examples of direct current (DC) could be car batteries and examples of alternative current (AC) could be the National Power Grid or power generators .

Electric Motors are more common than you may think from small applications such as watches and clocks to larger industrial applications such as cranes, powered lifts and industrial construction tools.

This type of motor is not just used to create mechanical force. Devices such as solenoids or sound system speakers convert electricity into motion but do not use any of the mechanical force produced. This type of device is commonly referred to a transducer or an actuator.

Electric motor types can be split into three distinct categories. These are piezoelectric, magnetic and electrostatic. It is fair to say that the most commonly used electric version of a motor both in industry and for domestic appliance use is the magnetic motor. As this is the most common type, so lets discuss this further.

Within magnetic electric motors, a magnetic field is formed within both a stator and the rotator devices. This creates a force that in turn creates a torque against the motor shaft. By changing one of these forces can change the rotation of the motor shaft, hence a bi direction ability. This is achieved by switching the electric motor polarity on and off at precise times. This is a common feature of many electromagnetic motors.

Electric magnetic motors can be powered by either DC or AC as mentioned above. With AC being the most common, there is again a further split of AC magnetic electric motor type into either asynchronous or synchronous motor types.

The asynchronous electric motor is required to be synchronized with a moving magnet for all normal torque conditions. The synchronous electric motor requires a magnetic field source other than induction for example from separate windings or from permanent magnets.

One of major factors to be considered when choosing a motor is the level of power, lift or force required, if at all, for your application. Gear motors are a form of electric motor that enable the step up or stepping down of torque and rpm .. This type of motor is commonly found in clocks and reclining chairs. This is highly configurable based on the number of gears and the gear rack ratio. You should seek specialist advice to ascertain which type is suitable for your operation.

Source by Christopher Owen Smith



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