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80+ Free O’Reilly Data Science Ebooks

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An archive of all O’Reilly data ebooks is available below for free download. Dive deep into the latest in data science and big data, compiled by O’Reilly editors, authors, and Strata speakers.


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Importance Of Science Lab Equipments For Education

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Science stands out distinctively from other subjects because of its nature of validating things through experiments. It is through scientific instruments or equipment that experiments and observations are carried out. Scientific instruments are set of tools, kits, apparatus and devices which are designed for certain purposes. These instruments include devices like microscope, Bunsen burner, test tube, thermometer, beaker, etc. They are used in various fields such as, medical, production, educational and research.

Science lab equipments are those equipments used for bearing and dealing chemicals. These devices are important for scientific purpose as they help in carrying out experiments safe and successful. Tools like test tube holder, weighing machine, test tube stand, compass, flask, funnel, etc. are some of the examples.

Importance of Educational science lab equipments

Educational laboratory equipment offer students the opportunity of learning science through hands-on experiences and enhancing their learning and thinking skills. These equipments will help the students to be more competitive and help achieve their goals through higher level of education and thinking order.

Schools that are well equipped with scientific lab instruments will give the students greater opportunities for learning. For instance, students can learn with practical experiments in the school laboratories about the scientific methods such as collecting data, experimenting and testing hypothesis. Making available with real lab equipments will make the students more enthusiastic and appreciative towards science and its findings.

Laboratory scientific instruments make the environment of interactive learning possible. Science is a discipline where conventional classroom teaching is not enough and it becomes effective only when teachings are accompanied by creating experiments and deducing conclusions from the experiments. Instead of just listening to lectures, reading text books and writing notes, the students will participate in the learning process by applying their critical thought.

According to interviews, providing a good lab facility with necessary lab equipments also make the teachers contribute better support for their students. If the teachers are well supplied with sufficient equipments, it will enable them to effectively convey their teachings through hands-on experiments. Instead of just demonstrating, the student will be allowed to have the opportunity of conducting and generating proofs through practical experiments. With teacher's greater contribution and better oversight, the learning environment becomes an ideal workshop for creating better students with better results.

In order to provide the requirements of schools and institutions, many science lab equipments manufacturers are working hard to provide them with advanced and efficient equipments. Naugra is a scientific instrument manufacturers among others, which provides outstanding solutions for educational sector worldwide.

Source by San Mishra

Criminal Justice Degrees Online – More Options and More Earning Power

machine learning articles


Acquiring a criminal justice degree online can provide many benefits. For instance, you will have the flexibility of an online degree, you will have access to different degree programs, from associate to to doctor degrees, and finally, depending on which degree option you choose, you will be able to better determine your learning power.

Obtaining a criminal justice degree online is flexible for many reasons. First off, online schooling is ideal for people who are working and studying at the same time. You will be given the luxury to arrange your classes around your work schedule. Flexibility is especially convenient for working parents who need to rearrange their schedules around their children. With lowered costs than traditional universities, attaining an online criminal justice degree is extremely resourceful.

There are many different degree programs offered for criminal justice and criminology. For example, if you decide to pursue a two year associate degree, you can focus your studies on practitioners such as: corrections, law enforcement, paralegal, private security and court reporting. If you opt to pursue a four year degree, you can obtain a bachelor degree for the following careers: a probation officer, a correctional treatment specialist and a social worker.

Depending on which degree program you choose, your learning power can vary. The four types of degrees students can pursue are: associate's degree, bachelor's degree, master's degree and doctorate. Many studies reveal that achieving the next level of a degree results in a higher income. For example, those who earn a PhD in criminal justice will earn $ 2.2M more than high school graduates in a lifetime and $ 900,000 more than holders of master's degrees. To start, an individual who has attained a bachelor's degree in criminal justice can receive around $ 900 per week, whereas an employee with only a high school diploma receives $ 554 per week.

Once you've received your degree, you'll have the ability to enter into a variety of careers ranging from police officers to paralegals. Individuals have the opportunity to pursue many criminal justice practitioners on a local, state or federal level, varying from a local social worker to a member of the FBI.

Attaining an online criminology degree is not only beneficial because of its flexibility and reduced costs, but because of its expanding options. With over 100 careers to choose from and several types of certificates and degrees, you will be given the opportunity to expand your career path as well as your salary.

Source by Alexandra Glazer

How to Use 5 Card Stud Strategies

machine learning articles


In 5 Card Stud strategy, you really want to get 'High Cards' and 'Pairs'. You only want to play for 'Straights' and 'Flushes' if on 'Third Street' you already have three cards towards a straight flush or if you are certain you will be able to get a flush or straight on the 'Fourth Street'.

When playing with 5 Card Stud strategy, one thing you need to pay close attention to is how your opponents play. Many players in a lot of different games have different things that do with the different hands, so the more you watch the more you will learn their little tell tail signs. Some people pretend to have a better hand than they actually do. This is often called bluffing and can be picked up easily.

With 5 Card Stud strategies, there is only one face down card. This makes it much easier than it is in most other poker games to trick your opponents and put them on edge, making them think you have a better hand than you really do. Again, watching and learning how your opponents play is important and also aids in the way that you play. But, you need to be careful about the tell tail signs you are sending, as your opponents will be watching and learning how you play as well.

In 5 Card Stud strategies, you need to be careful how you play in the first round as this will help determine how the rest of the game will follow. For example, in the First Street you would not want to start without at least one card that beats the board or without a pair as this game is all about 'High Cards' and 'Pairs'. You would actually want to fold if in the first three cards you did not have at least a pair. However, this is not a written rule. If you are beat on the board, you really need to fold without you have a good chance of beating the player with the best hand.

In 5 Card Stud rules, the good starting hands are – any pair, high pairs or low pairs. Obviously, the higher the card pair, the better your chances. You would need to think about folding if you did not receive triples in the third street. This is called 'Any Pair'. If both your cards are higher than the rest of your opponents – for example you have 8 and 9 and no one else's cards are higher than 7- this is called 'Both Cards Higher than the Board'.

If you have a King down and a five up, then you would beat the board if no one else had a up card that is higher than a Jack. This is called 'High Hole Card that Beats the Board with Any Up card'. And finally, if your up card is an Ace, it is always a good hand that will usually go past Third Street without needing a pair, with the right down card. Your face down card does not have to beat the board, but it should be a high card. This is called 'High Up card that beats the board with High Card in Hole'.

To better understand 5 card stud strategies, go to and try this game out for yourself. While you are there, check out our other articles about 5 card rules and tips.

Source by Nathan Greenbridge

Some Basic Information About the Centrifugal Pump

machine learning articles


What is a centrifugal pump? It is designed according to the principle of the centrifugal force. It is a pump that uses the high-speed rotating impeller to make the water move and realize the transportation of the water. In the market, there are a lot of centrifugal pumps. On basis of its functions, it can be classified into home pump and industrial pump. According to its pumped medium, it can be separated into clarified water pump, transh pump and anti-corrosive pump. Owing to its compact structure, even flow rate, low vibration, stable operation and other features, the centrifugal pump is widely used to transport the fluid through a pipeline in the different systems, such as cooling system, industrial equipment, aqua farm, fertilization system Egypt cleaning system.

In order to completely learn the working principle of this pump, it is of great necessity to first learn what the centrifugal principle. Simply speaking, the centrifugation actually is a kind of the inertial performance. For example, when the umbrella slowly turns around, the water drip on the umbrella will also turn around with the umbrella. This is caused by the centrifugal force, which is formed by the friction force between the umbrella and the water drip. However, if the umbrella turns around very quickly, the water drip will get away from the umbrella. Because the friction force can not make the water drip move in a circle. This is the so-called centrifugation. Just as its name implies, the centrifugal pump makes use of the centrifugal phenomenon to work.

Now it is turn to introduce the basic structure of a centrifugal pump . It consist of six parts, namely impeller, pump body, pump axis, bearing, seal ring and stuffing box. The impeller is the core component for this pump. It has a so quick rotating speed that it can deliver the large power. As for the impeller leaves, they plays an important role in the large power output. The pump body is also named shell. It is the main body of the centrifugal pump. Its main function is to support the whole equipment. As the main component to transmit the mechanical energy, the pump axis is to pass the torque of the electric motor to the impeller. As for the bearing, there are two kinds, namely roller bearing and sliding bearing, whose function is to support the pump axis. The seal ring is installed at the junction between the inner edge of the shell and the outer edge of the impeller. It plays an important role in increasing the reflux resistance, reducing the internal leakage and prolonging the operation time. As for the stuffing box, it is composed of stuffing material, water sealing pipe, seal cage and so on. To seal the gap between the shell and axis is its main function.

Source by Li Lily

Powder Coating – Its Early Development And Its Relationship With The Environment

machine learning articles


The earliest forms of powder coating have been around since the early 1950s and were born from America's insatiable appetite for motor vehicles. The continued streamlining of the sub-contract supplier network led to manufacturers seeking the "holy grail" of a one coat finishing system. This, coupled with early signs from environmental pressure groups, led to powder coating as we know it today, which can be best described as "solid paint".

The advantages over the established systems of traditional spray enamelling were speed of application and the continued pursuit of a high performance coating process. In place of the traditional etch prime, primer and possibly two coats of top coat, powder coating can do these all in one operation, though there were limitations.

Some of earliest examples of plastic or powder coating were quite simply of placing the pre-heated component in vat of aerated or fluidised powder. The powder was placed in a container on top of a fine membrane then a controlled amount of compressed air was passed through the membrane. The powder then bubbled and subsequently doubled in volume and the heated components were placed in this bubbling fluid for the time determined by the thickness of finish required and the amount of sink the component held. This was powder coating in most simple form and offered little or no performance or aesthetic qualities but it did offer the distinct advantage of speed and, in turn, cost savings.

The application equipment was developed from dipping into powder to spraying on powder and the basic spray equipment from the 1960s and 1970s has now led us to the state of the art equipment we recognize today. The same three parts of the process, however, remain as important now as they were then: these are (a) the pre-treatment, (b) application and (c) curing of the components. These three key elements of the process will be discussed in future articles, along with the environmental issues associated with the powder coating industry.

Source by Chris Shannon

Understanding Electric Motors

machine learning articles


Before choosing an electric motor type for your industrial or domestic application, it is important to know what they are, how they work and any constraints that exist for the different different types of motor available.

Let's start with what it is. Put simply, it converts electric energy into mechanical energy. Generally speaking, in a standard set up and configuration, these motors will operate between winding currents and the magnetic field created to produce a force within the motor. This force is also generated through the input of a power source.

This type of motor can be powered by ether direct current (DC) or by current current (AC) .Examples of direct current (DC) could be car batteries and examples of alternative current (AC) could be the National Power Grid or power generators .

Electric Motors are more common than you may think from small applications such as watches and clocks to larger industrial applications such as cranes, powered lifts and industrial construction tools.

This type of motor is not just used to create mechanical force. Devices such as solenoids or sound system speakers convert electricity into motion but do not use any of the mechanical force produced. This type of device is commonly referred to a transducer or an actuator.

Electric motor types can be split into three distinct categories. These are piezoelectric, magnetic and electrostatic. It is fair to say that the most commonly used electric version of a motor both in industry and for domestic appliance use is the magnetic motor. As this is the most common type, so lets discuss this further.

Within magnetic electric motors, a magnetic field is formed within both a stator and the rotator devices. This creates a force that in turn creates a torque against the motor shaft. By changing one of these forces can change the rotation of the motor shaft, hence a bi direction ability. This is achieved by switching the electric motor polarity on and off at precise times. This is a common feature of many electromagnetic motors.

Electric magnetic motors can be powered by either DC or AC as mentioned above. With AC being the most common, there is again a further split of AC magnetic electric motor type into either asynchronous or synchronous motor types.

The asynchronous electric motor is required to be synchronized with a moving magnet for all normal torque conditions. The synchronous electric motor requires a magnetic field source other than induction for example from separate windings or from permanent magnets.

One of major factors to be considered when choosing a motor is the level of power, lift or force required, if at all, for your application. Gear motors are a form of electric motor that enable the step up or stepping down of torque and rpm .. This type of motor is commonly found in clocks and reclining chairs. This is highly configurable based on the number of gears and the gear rack ratio. You should seek specialist advice to ascertain which type is suitable for your operation.

Source by Christopher Owen Smith

Carbide Progressive Dies – Advantages of Using Tungsten Carbide Tooling

machine learning articles


In the tool and die world, carbide progressive dies have several key advantages for certain precision metal stamping operations requiring long life and high volume stamping runs. Carbide is harder than steel, is highly wear resistant, and can withstand very high compressive loading.

Tungsten carbide is a cemented carbide made up of Tungsten (W), Carbon (C), and a binder such as cobalt or nickel. By changing the amount of binder, the properties of Tungsten Carbide can be adjusted to obtain specific properties needed for various applications. For example, increasing the amount of binder results in higher impact resistance, but less wear resistance. Conversely, decreasing the amount of binder results in higher hardness, but less fracture toughness. Hence, a proper understanding of the various grades of carbide can increase the chances of having a successfully designed carbide progressive die.

The selection of a carbide progressive die (over a steel die) is a consideration that should be made during the design stage of the component that is to be stamped. For applications requiring very high volumes, carbide tooling may be a good selection. Examples of this would be applications such as: lamination for the rotors/stators in motors or for transformers, surgical components, bearings, electronic connector pins, and many other applications.

The benefits of using carbide tooling for certain progressive die applications include: higher wear resistance, reduced die maintenance, and less downtime. These three benefits are inherently due to the higher wear resistance provided by the use of tungsten carbide. Higher wear resistance results in longer running times between necessary maintenance for a carbide progressive die as compared to a steel progressive die. Although carbide tooling still requires preventive maintenance, the less frequent maintenance intervals oftentimes result in a lower life cycle (total) cost for certain precision stamped components.

Source by Rick Pollick

Industrial Water Treatment – Objectives, Classifications and Applications

machine learning articles


Industrial water treatment is a means to optimize industrial processes that are dependent on water consumption. Examples of these industries include cooling, heating, processing, rinsing and cleaning. This technique is employed in order to reduce not only operating costs but also to lessen the risks linked to contaminated water systems.

There are different objectives behind industrial waste water treatment equipment. Primarily it focuses on areas of scaling, corrosion, disposal of wastewater and microbiological activity. Alongside these objectives are different classifications for water treatment. Below are explanations for these subject matters on this industrial product.

Objectives of systems for treating industrial water

As mentioned awhile back, the objectives of treating water revolve around four areas. The first one on the list is scaling or the process caused by the precipitation of water mineral salts that result to solid deposit formation. The second one is corrosion which is often a problem taking place once metal is oxidized and forms into iron rusts.

The last two areas evolve on microbiological activities and disposal of wastewater. Microbes are often a problem especially in cold water systems. They often thrive in untreated areas and come in the form of flies, fungal spores, grass and dust. When it comes to disposal of wastewater, the main focus of attention is to provide a means to comply with wastewater treatment as required by the community. This is often dealt with in petroleum refineries and chemical plants.

Classifications of industrial water treatment systems

Water treatment for several industries is classified into three. Each of these treatment facilities has its own set of applications. The categories are boiler, cooling water and wastewater treatment.

A boiler water treatment makes use of a vessel to heat and treat water. It is essential in heating applications including those for domestic use and generators. It also provides steam for boats, trains and ships. The boiler helps transfer energy from fuel to the water before it serves its purpose.

The cooling water system on the other hand, makes use of cooling towers. These are devices that make use of heat removal processes. They employ water evaporation to remove heat from the system then cool it down to become a working fluid. This is important in oil refineries, power stations and chemical plants.

Lastly, wastewater treatment is a system that is utilized in various industries as well as in domestic residences. This is an industrial water treatment that aims at the removal of waste materials discharged by commercial properties and agricultural systems. With the correct processes employed, the objective of the water treatment system can be achieved.

Source by Richard C. Milton

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