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Packet requirements, what you need to include in your IRR packet:
1. IRR packet checklist, based on Figure B-59 of USAR Pamphlet 600-5.
2. DA Form 4561, Request for Reserve Component Assignment or Attachment. Completely filled and signed by the Soldier and the Commander.
3. Your statement/justification letter and backing documentation. This is based on the reasons listed in AR 140-10.
4. Chain of Command Recommendation.
5. Cogent Personal Reason. If the specific reason isn’t listed in AR 140-10, it requires an exception to policy by your OFTS.
6. Counseling Statement (DA Form 4856). This is from the commander to the Soldier and is face to face. Are you in receipt of a bonus? This counseling statement must warn you about bonus termination or recoupment.
7. Counseling Statement (DA Form 4856). From the Soldier’s servicing career counselor to the Soldier; it’s also face to face.
Valid reasons for transferring from the Troop Program Unit (TPU) to the Individual Ready Reserves (IRR):
As a TPU Soldier, you can forward an IRR transfer packet up the chain of command. There’s no guarantee for that packet’s approval, or for your transfer to the IRR.
If you want to improve your TPU to IRR transfer chances, refer to the valid reasons listed in AR 140 -10, Chapter 4, Paragraph 9. If you have enough documentations, and facts, to support one or more of these reasons, include them in your IRR packet. This’ll help you make your case for transferring to the IRR.
Let’s say that your employer all of a sudden can’t release you from the work schedule so that you can drill… as your absence would cause an adverse impact on your employer’s operation. Before, this wasn’t an issue. Your employer released you for a weekend, and was able to continue his operation. When they couldn’t release you, you were able to reschedule.
Now? Your employer needs you, on the days you need to drill, in order for the company to continue on with its mission. Conditions had changed since you started working with this employer.
Or, you’re in a company that restructures and eliminates your job. They move you to another part of the company. In this new job, you’re on call to go to different parts of the country, and your schedule is random. You’re not able to do rescheduled training. Your employer can’t spare you for any reserve drill without negatively impacting company operations.
These are just two examples, of which there are many, on how your employment could evolve into something that makes it hard for you to meet TPU requirements.
In your Soldier’s Statement of Justification letter, provide an objective picture of how your employment schedule makes it impractical for you to continue with the TPU. Include statements from your employer to back this justification.
Change of address:
You accept a new job within your company. It’ll pay you more, it’s something that you love doing, and it represents a move up in your civilian career. The catch? You have to go somewhere that’s two days away from the nearest Army Reserve center. Your employer isn’t able to spare you enough time to get to, and return from, the nearest Army Reserve unit.
In this scenario, you’re a TPU Soldier that can’t drill with any Army Reserve unit.
Or, you get a promotion that sends you overseas. Your job location is a long flight away from the nearest Army Reserve Center.
For something like this, you’d be able to submit a packet to transfer to the IRR. In your statement of soldier justification, include employment orders, employment promotion documentations, new job description, an objective picture that details your new job location, your new residence, etc.
Cogent personal reasons:
This is sort of a “catch all” to cover other reasons not specifically covered in AR 140-10.
What you think is a very good reason to transfer may not be what the Army thinks it is. You also have to see this from your unit’s perspective.
You’re asking them to release you, when they need you at the unit during drills and summer training. They don’t have a guarantee that they’ll get a replacement Soldier. You have to convince them to “sign off” on your IRR packet.
Let’s say that you’re “burned out” from doing drills. You just want to “sit around” in the IRR until the “burnt out” phase ends. In your unit’s eyes, this is a subjective reason. They could work with you to where you wouldn’t need to submit an IRR transfer packet.
In this example, your soldier justification letter needs to provide an accurate, objective, picture of how your Army reserve duties contribute to you being burned out. You’ll need letters from your medical professionals to help bolster your justifications.
Whatever the personal reason that you choose, make sure that you could provide an objective picture. Make sure that you could provide factual information from subject matter experts involved with your situation.
You also want to prove that there’s no other way to “solve” your current issue other than to transfer to the IRR. Before you do this, you have to exhaust the means to resolve this with resources that your unit could reference you to.
You completed the TPU portion of your contract, now you’re ready to transfer to the IRR:
As of this writing, everybody that joins the military, for the first time, signed an eight year contract. When a first time enlister signs a 6 year Army Reserve contract, they’re not just signing up for 6 years. When those 6 years are over, that Soldier has an additional 2 years of commitment. They can request transfer to the IRR after their TPU commitment.
This concept applies even if the TPU part of the contract was 3, 4, or 5 years.
Once the TPU portion of the contract is over, they can request transfer to the IRR. They have to continue drilling with the unit until they receive their IRR orders.
Surviving son or daughter:
You’re in the reserves, and pursuing your civilian career. Two years later, your last remaining sibling passes on. You’re now your parents’ only surviving child. This is an unfortunate event, but one that gives you an opportunity to transfer from the TPU to the IRR.
When you write your Soldier justification letter, include documentation proving that you’re now the last/sole surviving child for your parents.
Dependency or hardship makes it impractical to participate in TPU:
Let’s say your family situation changes, and you have to provide extra care and supports to one of your family members. This family member is someone on your dependents list. You don’t have an alternative care plan… nobody else could afford to give up a lot of their time, and sacrifice their employment, to help you out.
This dependent family member needs your presence. Without you, this family member’s welfare is negatively impacted.
Two examples of this category is an “assisted living” situation and a “direct support provider” situation. In these scenarios, a family member is unable to care for him or herself. The family member requires a soldier’s attention, supervision, and direct support to do basic functions.
Statements from doctors, social workers, case managers, and other related people should be included in this packet. Their statement should focus on the nature of the dependency hardship, and on the need for you to be consistently available.
If you’re pregnant, you may be able to transfer to the IRR. You have to be MOS qualified, and you can’t be within 3 months of your ETS.
Non selection for retention:
This impacts TPU Soldiers that have received their “official notification of eligibility to retire with pay at 60” letter. This is the “20 year letter.” By regulation, these Soldiers are subjected to a Qualitative Retention Board.
Prior to this board’s convening, the impacted Soldier receives a “pre board” packet. The Soldier is given a couple of options. If the board removes the Soldier from the TPU, which control group would the Soldier like to transfer to?
The Soldier could elect to be transferred to the retired reserves, or to the IRR. Should the qualitative review board decide to remove the Soldier from the TPU, orders will be generated transferring the Soldier to the control group that the Soldier selected.
This is also applicable to TPU Soldiers subjected to the actions of other types of retention boards. In this situation, a Soldier may have the option to transfer to the IRR.
Enrollment into a non-scholarship ROTC:
A “non-scholarship” ROTC program is one that offers the student a chance to participate in an ROTC program without financial benefits. These students don’t get a monthly stipend. These students pay for their own tuition, fees, and other expenses.
Soldiers that get accepted into this type of ROTC program can submit an IRR packet.
Merchant Marine Academy:
If you get accepted into the Merchant Marine Academy, you can submit an IRR transfer packet.
Army Regulation 140-10:
For details on each of these categories, and how to apply under them, read Army regulation 140 -10, Assignments, Attachments, Details, and Transfers.
Counseling statements from the commanding officer and servicing career counselor:
Did you get a bonus for enlisting into your current TPU contract? If your IRR transfer gets approved, you could lose the remainder of your bonus. Depending on your bonus stipulation, you could end up having to pay back the part of your bonus that you received.
If you’re receiving a bonus, you need to be informed of this fact when you submit your IRR packet.
This counseling statement should also inform you of your IRR responsibilities. The commanding officer will include any information that’s important to you. This includes the fact that you must continue to drill with the unit until you receive transfer orders to the IRR.
The career counselor will inform you of opportunities that are available to you in the IRR, including opportunities to reclassify and transfer back to the TPU when personal conditions favor such a move.
IRR transfer packet tips:
1. Are you on your initial contract, with IRR time following your TPU time? By regulation, you’re not supposed to submit your IRR packet until your TPU obligation is complete. You can submit your IRR transfer packet the day after your “TPU ETS” date.
2. After you submit your IRR packet, you have to drill with your unit until you receive orders transferring you to the IRR.
Don’t simply go by what somebody at your unit says. Some Soldiers have stopped drilling after they “completed” their “TPU years,” because they thought they were automatically in the IRR. This wasn’t true, they had to report back to drill.
3. Follow up on your packet. If HRC doesn’t get your packet, they might extend your TPU status to the end of your military service obligation. In this case, you’ll have to drill until your 8 years is up.
4. If you have unresolved medical issues, you have to have these issues resolved before you can transfer to the IRR.
5. IRR Soldiers still have obligations and point requirements to make. However, you could consider the active standby reserves instead of the IRR if you want to “get away” from the TPU temporarily.
In the IRR, you have to get at least 50 points a retirement year.
In the active standby reserves, there’s no requirement for you to get at least 50 points. You maintain your military affiliation, but you’re generally not required to maintain a good year. The active standby reserves is what most people assume the IRR is.
1. AR 140-10; provides details on the above categories as justification for IRR transfer.
2. AR G1 Policy Letters.
3. USAR Pamphlet 600-5.
It’s a type of paper used in all manuscripts of writing in Japanese. Vertical writing usually starts from right to left and top to bottom. Horizontal writing starts from left to right and top to bottom. Here are some tips for you.
- Title: write the title in the 1st line. The 1st word starts from the 4th square. If the title starts with numbers, write them in Kanji.
- Name: writer’s name is on the 2nd line. Last name comes before the first name. Leave 1 square between the last and first name. Leave 1 square below the first name as well.
- The First Sentence of the Essay or Paragraph: starts from the 3rd line in the 2nd square. Each new paragraph starts from the 2nd square.
- Punctuation Marks: usually occupy their own squares. Exception: when they will occur at the top of next line, we write them at the bottom right quarter next to the last word of the current line.
- Small Characters: each occupies 1 square and we place it on the top right quarter of the square.
- The Subheading (if applicable): has 1 empty line before and after. It starts from the 3rd square of a new line. If there are no subheadings, just start the next paragraph in a new line after the previous one.
- Elongation Mark: when writing from top to bottom, the elongation mark should also be written from top to bottom in the middle of the square.
- Writing Numbers: use kanji instead of Arabic number. One number occupies 1 square.
- All the rules (1-8) in vertical writing would normally apply to horizontal writing.
- Small characters occupy in the bottom left quarter of 1 square.
- When writing conversation script, we use the Japanese quotation mark.
- Always aim to write about 90% of the words required. Between 90-100% is great. Below 80% will not give you good marks.
- Always write Kanji if you can. Too many Hiragana will not help you get good marks.
- Be consistent. Stick to whichever the form you choose to use for sentences throughout the essay. To include all what you wanted to write about without exceeding the word limits, we recommend to use the plain form. The plain form also gives the friendly feeling to readers.
- Avoid using slang or colloquial words/ expression in the formal essay writing.
- Avoid repeating the same words or the same content too often.
- Avoid writing a sentence that is longer than 2 lines of the Genkouyoushi.
- Ensure the logic of the sentence flows.
- Ensure there are no typos or writing errors. e.g., You are thinking of 1 word but you wrote it differently.
- If you need to write in pencil, please make sure you choose the proper one for clarity of reading and ease of writing.
‘H’ indicates the hardness. e.g., 3H is harder than H.
‘B’ indicates the blackness. e.g., 3B is softer than B.
‘F’ indicates that you sharpen the pencil to a fine point.
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There are reasons why people chose alternative medicine and reasons why they avoid it, preferring conventional medicine. Alternative medicine is safer than standard health treatments and usually works. It’s true that it can’t be used in severe conditions like car accidents or other severe emergencies, but be that as it may, there are enough situations in which alternative medicine is recommended. When it comes to emotional and spiritual needs, non-conventional medicine may come up with the solution. Furthermore, it’s better for preventing illnesses than standard medicine. More and more physicians nowadays agree upon the benefits of alternative medicine and also even advise their clients to choose the best natural treatment for them.
One of the advantages of alternative medicine is that it encompasses a broad range of therapies, treatments and products, thus the search for obtaining positive results doesn’t flow on a narrow path at all.
A pretty important disadvantage states the idea that, even though the expenses of using acupuncture or chiropractic are sometimes covered by health insurances, the majority of alternative treatments are not reimbursed.
There are certain risks that come along with the usage of natural remedies. Despite the use of herbs throughout the years and even ancient times, not all of them have been studied regarding their safety and efficiency. There are issues concerning their purity and their possible interaction with other substances related to conventional therapies. The majority of information regarding herbs have been perpetuated throughout history and with the help of tradition. Many people assume that herbal medicines are better than synthetic drugs simply because, well, they are natural and not synthetic, therefore present no risk. But they are not risk free; they can do more harm than good if taken without having the details of their effects over the body.
People might abuse of natural medicines the same way as they do it in the case of synthetic drugs. They have the misconception that if unconventional medicine consists of herbal products which are natural, then there is no harm done if they triple the dosage or more. This is totally wrong and can have serious consequences. Take vitamins for example. They are just vitamins, right? They can’t possibly do any damage inside the body. But they do. Vitamin overdosing or vitamin toxicity can lead to unpleasant effects depending on the vitamin that has been taken one too many times. Vitamin A over dosage can cause liver problems, osteoporosis, hair loss and other dangerous effects and Hypervitaminosis D leads to dehydration, vomiting, anorexia and even kidney stones.
An advantage of using herbal remedies concerns the effectiveness related with chronic health issues that don’t respond well or even at all to traditional medicines. If long term medication is needed, then herbs are pretty much safer than conventional drugs. The alternative medicine industry takes advantage from this and keeps evolving and developing due to the constant need for natural remedies.
Another advantage is the low cost of herbal products compared to synthetic drugs which are highly priced for the simple reason that researching and testing the products is expensive. Furthermore, herbal products can be bought without a prescription and are easy to procure. The availability of natural remedies is outstanding; chamomile for example can be easily picked out from a nearby field.
The advantages of using herbal medicines are numerous, but so are the disadvantages. The best idea would be to consider modern medicine according to the severity of the illness, to consult a physician upon the proper medication and dosage and if you do chose the alternative medicine, try to gather enough information upon both kinds of treatments, natural or synthetic, so you may reassure yourself that you took the right decision to balance your health situation.
We go to school to learn; but, did we ever learn how to learn? Have you ever wondered how we learned to speak or to read and write? How do we learn to drive a car, fly an airplane or, for that matter, walk and run? How do we learn arithmetic? How do we learn to communicate? How do we learn to respect, trust and love? How do we learn anything?
Learning how to learn is important because if we don’t or can’t learn, we’re in big trouble! Obviously, we did learn. We learned many behaviors and a fair amount of knowledge. Just by the fact that you are reading and understanding these words suggest not only that you did learn, but that you can learn. Yet, the question is how did you do it? Because if you know how you did it, you can apply that knowledge to just about anything that needs to be learned.
Simply stated, learning is a process of creating, arranging and re-arranging neural interactions and neural program structures within the brain. We’re actually pre-programmed and hard wired for learning and we really don’t have to learn how to learn. But, we can learn how to enhance and magnify our capacity to learn. All learning is in the brain. Even if we are learning a physical dance movement with our feet, the learning is taking place in the brain where neurological “magic” is happening. From there, nerves and muscles are coordinated in an extraordinarily complex process of bioelectrochemical signals.
Before the brain can begin it’s creating, arranging and re-arranging of neural interactions, i.e., before there can be learning, there must be input. Input comes in the form of raw sensory data. Depending on how that date comes in can greatly accelerate, or impede, learning. Raw sensory data is received through the eyes (sight), the ears (sound), the skin (touch), the nose (smell), the tongue (taste) and the musculoskeletal system (movement). Of course, our nervous system is at the base of all these sensory systems, sometimes referred to as the “Sensorium.” Also, a process called “synaesthesia” is often referred to in learning theory. Synaesthesia is the ability to mix up the senses; for example, you can hear the color blue or see the sound of wind. This kind of imaginative shifting of sensory modalities can often be helpful in working with learning disabilities.
In the 1970’s a Bulgarian psychologist by the name of Georgi Lazanov revolutionized the field of learning with his ideas of “superlearning” and “suggestology.” His premise was that various environmental stimuli, when regulated properly, can accelerate learning. Specifically, an environment that induces relaxation was optimal for learning. Another key factor in superlearning was rhythm. The proper rhythms used alternatively, either from background music or sound, is also highly conducive to accelerated learning. Basically, what Lozanov, and others who have followed appear to be saying is that learning is best accomplished in a very relaxed almost hypnotic state of mind. This is very interesting because our schools are anything but relaxing and trance inducing.
Imagine a classroom that is not brightly lit, that is spacious enough for 25 children to lie on the clean, carpeted floor. Imagine soft background sounds, perhaps that of a waterfall or a babbling brook. Imagine then hearing, either from an audio tape or a live person, the singing of the multiplication tables, beginning with the 2’s. Each run through the table is sung at a different rate, rhythm, tone, cadence and volume. Following this exercise, imagine the children then sitting at desks and writing out the multiplication tables they just heard with different colored crayons. Then imagine them singing them out aloud themselves. Imagine any number of games that can then be played using the multiplication tables. How long and how difficult do you think it will be for students to learn the tables this way? Will it be torturous or enjoyable? Gee, kids might even like coming to school to learn! Now, that would be a revolution in education!
Want to learn to ski, or sail, or dance, or surf, or fly an airplane? Well, just about anything can be learned in a very similar method as described above. The only difference is that in the case of physical activities, visualization replaces physical activity. So, let’s say you want to learn to…..play a musical instrument, play the guitar. You can greatly enhance your learning capacity by taking a piece of the skill, say a simple chord, and, in a very relaxed and calm state of mind, you practice that chord in your mind. You visualize every single detail of your hand and fingers. You feel the pressure of the strings on your fingers; you hear the sound of the chord being strummed. Want to learn to fly an airplane? Well, you don’t necessarily need to relax and visualize it. Today, with the advent of modern computer technology, you can enter a flight simulator, which is just inner visualization materialized outward via technology. Even home computers now have flight training programs. Want to improve your athletic performance? There is no question that relaxed visualization is a key component. Top athletes from all over the world and their coaches will attest to the fact that inner visualization has a tremendous impact on improving performance.
The gist of the matter is simple: learning takes place in the brain and the most conducive environment for the brain to learn in is one which allows neural connections to be formed easily, quickly and without resistance or distractions. Subdued lighting, soft background, trance inducing music and relaxation are a highly effective environment for learning and visualization.
Ever wonder why it’s so hard to learn new behaviors? Generally it’s because there is so much stress and anxiety about it. If you really want to learn new behaviors (as opposed to being coerced into it), then use relaxation and visualization. Practice seeing in your mind’s eye the new behavior. As you repeat this process you are creating new neural pathways which are the basis of the behavior you want to generate. Give it a try. You’ll be surprised at how quickly and easily you can learn a new behavior and how well your brain can work when given the proper environment.
The great thing about Texas Holdem Poker is that it is easy to learn. Even a beginner can quickly develop into a winning player. By following a sound strategy and playing the best starting hands a Texas Holdem Poker newbie can dramatically shorten the learning curve. So what are the best hands that a beginner should play?
The best hands for a beginner to play are Ace-Ace, King-King, Queen-Queen, Jack-Jack, Ace-King fitted (example – Ace of clubs & King of clubs).
I strongly recommend that you only play these starting hands as a beginner. In other words, if you are dealt a hand other than one of the above then fold!
Folding is one of the most difficult decisions for a Texas Holdem Poker beginner to do. The mindset of most Texas Holdem Poker beginners is to hang around and see the flop in the hopes of hitting it just right and improving a hand.
While a beginner will hit the flop and improve their hand occasionally, more often than not they will miss it. The Texas Holdem Poker beginner player that plays poor starting hands will end up throwing more money away than they will win.
When you are dealt one of the best starting hands I recommend raising the pot which will serve two purposes. First, it will force players with weak hands to fold instead of allowing them to stay in the game and see the flop for free.
Secondly, by seeing who raises and calls you get to see who feels that they have a good hand and who may be trying to hang in for the flop.
When the flop is deal you should look carefully to see if you have improved your hand. Even if you have not improved your hand, because you started started out with one of the better hands you may still have the best hand. This is especially true if your starting hand was a pair of aces or kings.
If your opponents raise back this can be a strong signal that they may have a powerful hand. Ask yourself, "What could my opponent have?" "Could they have improved their hand?"
Ask yourself these questions after each round of cards are dealt and try to "read" your opponents hand.
If you have a high pair a raise after the flop can help you assess whether your opponents feel if they have a strong hand or not.
If you think you are beat there is no shame in folding at this point.
When the turn card has been revealed, if you think that you may still have the best hand I would raise the pot so that I could obtain information about my opponents' hands.
I would follow this same strategy on the river card.
To summarize this basic Texas Holdem Poker beginner strategy:
– stick to playing the best starting hands
– fold the bad hands
– use the power of the raise to knock out weak players and to assess the strength of your opponents hands
By following this Texas Holdem Poker beginner strategy you will start out winning more hands than you lose. You will start out winning more money than you will lose.
As this fast-paced technological age directs the future, ways to integrate it in the
classroom becomes a primary focus for educators today. Unfortunately,
there is no hard and fast rule for integration in any classroom.
Ultimately, it depends upon many factors before a plan for integration
can be made. First and foremost access to computers should be
considered. Depending upon the access, integration can occur on
varying levels. Gradual integration is the best way to start utilizing
the internet in the classroom. A great starting point is to use a
single lesson for the student's first immersion into this new form of
teaching. As familiarity and comfort increases the teacher and student
would progress towards a project involving a thematic unit. Finally,
as a long-term commitment the teacher and student could try a yearlong
activity structured as a project (Karchmer 2000).
Whether integration occurs as suggested above or in another modified
fashion, the following core components should be incorporated and
considered during this integration.
o The agenda for integration should always be curriculated correlated
o The lesson or mode of integration should be thoroughly prepared and
studied by the teacher.
o The teacher should be knowledgeable about the components of the
lesson and in using the internet.
The benefits of the Internet for teachers are many. First, teachers
can use the Internet for sharing resources. Teachers can display theirs
own innovative lessons for others to use, or they can utilize the
World Wide Web as a resource for gathering information such as lesson
plans and activities for use in the classroom. Second, teachers can
interact with others in order to share ideas and determine solutions
for the common classroom. Finally, it is important to remember that
the Internet provides global access to resources (Dyrli & Krona-man,
1995). Such resources can be found in locations all over the world and
are specifically designed for the benefit of teachers, students, and
other individuals. The Internet fosters the sense of a global teaching
community because it allows individuals to correspond with each other
from anywhere on the globe.
As with teachers, the benefits to students are many. Access to the
Internet and the wealth of information it provides allows students to
have greater control over their own learning. The Internet empowers
students to make decisions regarding their research and to become more
independent learners. . It also opens the doors to places and
opportunities a student would not be able to access in a normal
classroom. The ability to email students from different parts of the
world and receive first-hand accounts on current events in that part
of the world as well as exposure to the different culture in that part
of the world is an example of two things that would normally be
impossible in today's classroom.
Another benefit to the student is that the Internet is flexible and
provides a forum for creating, publishing, searching, and making
decisions. There are many ways of exploring, and no single correct way
exists. Students must decide on the searching path for themselves.
This type of decision-making skill will prove to be invaluable to the
student as they grow and enter college and the work world.
Before deciding to bring the Internet into the classroom, teachers
must investigate the barriers to implementation as well as the
potential benefits of Internet use. As with most things, along with
the positive, there are often negative aspects. Several barriers to
use are related to initial setup for Internet access; others are
related to actual use of the Internet.
One major barrier to implementing Internet access in classes is the
lack of computers and for those schools with computers there is a lack
of teacher training in Internet use (Sanchez, 1995). Many teachers do
not know how to use the Internet or to integrate the resources
available on the Internet into their curriculum. Another barrier to
implementation is the lack of class time that can be devoted to using
the Internet (Frazier, 1995). Another problem is that many school
districts are fearful of the cost of implementation and are skeptical
in regard to the benefits of having access to the Internet. Because
children are involved – and teachers are responsible – the problem of
Internet pornography is particularly acute in the school setting. This
is probably the main reason many school districts and parents are
hesitant to integrate the Internet.
Now comes the hard part, how do I plan to integrate the internet into
my classroom? First, I plan on using blackboard as a means of
communication with my students. Because many of them will attend ULL,
this can prove to be an invaluable learning experience for future
collegiate endeavors. Since I am talking about eighth gradeifted
Algebra I, my expectations will not be as stringent as a college
instructor. I plan on utilizing the forum discussions, possibly an
online quiz, and the fostering of communication among my students from
the three different schools I teach at. I plan to require that they
fill in their homepage as well as download a digital picture (I will
take with a digital camera and save on disk) so that they can
experience some technological aspects of the internet as well as
foster some familiarity between students. I also plan to try and have
an open chat time concern a chosen mathematical topic. The primary
goal I will have is to have the students become familiar with
blackboard and to have the student's foster communication and feel a
sense of familiarity with students taking the same class across the
I also plan on having students turn in the problem of the week on
MATHCOUNTS.org for every week. These problems are always NCTM driven
and meet the requirements of the state and nation. These problems are
very similar to ones the student will be expected to solve on the Math
Leap. Since the problems deal with current events on a weekly basis,
it will also serve the dual purpose of incorporating Math and Social
Studies by keeping the student's abreast of some aspect of what is
going on in the world today.
Cold forging is a process in metal working that basically makes use of a pressing tool or a die. Whatever the shape of the pressing tool used in the process will also be the shape of the output. It is usually done in room or near room temperature. At some points, it is also known as cold heading.
Basic cold forging process .
The simplest form of the cold forging process evolves on some steps. It starts when a bar or wire stock is placed at the stamping or pressing tool. The most common results are nails, screw with a head or a bolt. Once these outputs undergo another cold heading process, the shape may be changed to other forms. The most common examples are the heads of screw drivers or knurls.
More complicated cold forging processes .
Aside from the process described above, there are other complicated processes behind cold forging. These things are described as follows:
Forward Extrusion .
A punch is used in order to push the billet through a pressing tool. The material flows in a similar direction as that of the punch. This is commonly used in reducing wall thickness as well as in the production of solid shapes like circles, triangles and rectangles.
Backward Extrusion .
Unlike in forward extrusion, this process takes the opposite direction going to the upper portion of the punch. This is famous in the production of inner and outer circular diameters or rectangles forming around a circle.
Side Extrusion .
This process apparently goes in a sideways direction from the punch.
These are among the popular processes behind cold forging. Ironing, nosing, radial forging and upsetting may also be involved. A combination or a sequence of these processes may be employed in the production of an output. This will enable the manufacturer to produce different shapes and designs to the material.
To most of us, CNC sounds foreign, but equipment belonging to the CNC category are a daily thing for those related to manufacturing and fabrication industries. CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control which has been used since the 1970's at the sunset of computers. That is how it got its name, except that it was first called only NC or numerical control when it was first introduced.
The CNC is programmed to reduce manual intervention in a certain fabrication process, thus reducing production time and waste, thereby resulting to increased production efficiency. To illustrate this, metal preparation using conventional tools would require the operator to manually bore hole on the metal using a drill press. But before he can do it, he has to secure the metal in place, select the desired speed for rotation of the drill press, activate the spindle and manually drive the drill into the metal. That takes a lot of steps and errors and accidents are bound to happen at each step of the process.
The CNC machine simplifies all these work for the operator. With the CNC equivalent of the drill press, he only has to position the metal in its place, activate the spindle, set the controls and the machine does the rest. It is very well like the automated ways of doing things. Everything that an operator is required to do with the conventional machine tools is programmable with CNC machines.
Another advantage of a CNC machine is being able to produce consistent and accurate work pieces. Once the programming controls had been set, the CNC machine can produce thousands of identical pieces in a short span of time. This is almost impossible if done manually.
CNC machines are also flexible since processes are programmed. You can run a specific program for one piece, save it and recall it again the next time that piece is to be reproduced. These machines are also easy to set-up, so, allowing you to meet your deadlines faster.
All CNC machines have motion control, whether linear or rotary. This is one of the things that they have in common. The path or direction that the machine follows is called axis. The more axes the machine has, the more complex it is.
Common industrial examples of CNC tools are welders, drills, grinders, routers and lathes. But it is noteworthy to know that even home tools that belong to the CNC category. These are electronic paper cutters, quilting and embroidery machines and yes, your computer printer which operates on the X axis only.
Without us knowing it, some tools that we encounter as we do about our respectable businesses may be CNC machines too. The use of these machines is not only exclusive to the metal industry but in large range endeavors as well, especially those that require mass production of articles. As the demand increases, the need for producers to meet these demands becomes more urgent as well. But thanks to CNC machines, production processes are made easier, faster and safer.